CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O or
Cu + 2 H2SO4 → CuSO4 + SO2 + 2 H2O
The most common industrial production of copper sulfate ; occures by reacting copper oxide with diluted sulfuric acid.
Raw material : copper scrap from electrical cables ( 99.99% copper)
Manufacture In the production of copper sulphate virgin copper is seldom, if ever, used as the starting raw material.
Copper ores are used in countries where these are mined. For the bulk of the world’s production nonferrous scrap is the general source. The scrap is refined and the molten metal poured into water to produce roughly spherical porous pieces about the size of marbles which are termed “shot”. This shot is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid in the presence of air to produce a hot saturated liquor which, if the traditional large crystals of copper sulphate are required, is allowed to cool slowly in large cooling vats into which strips of lead are hung to provide a surface for the crystals to grow on. If the granulated (snow) crystal grades are desired, the cooling process is accelerated by agitating the liquor in water cooled vessels.
Commercially copper sulphate contains 25 % metallic copper and is sold with a guaranteed minimum purity of 98 % copper sulphate. It is produced in a number of grades varying from large crystal lumps, of 25 mm or more in diameter from which it appropriately derives the name bluestone, to very fine powders of almost the fineness of talcum powder.
The four commonest grades, based on crystal diameter sizes, are:
- Large crystals (from 10 mm to 40 mm)
- Small crystals (from 2 mm to 10 mm)
- Granulated or snow crystals (less than 2 mm)
- Windswept powder (less than 0.15 mm)